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Vienna was for centuries imperial imperial capital of the Habsburgs , and thus as the capital of the Holy Roman Empire , the Empire of Austria and one of the two capitals of Austria-Hungary a cultural and political center of Europe. As the fifth largest city in the world after London , New York , Paris and Chicago Vienna counted around the year 1910 more than two million inhabitants. After the end of the First World War , however, Vienna lost about a quarter of its population.
The historic center of Vienna ,which is characterized by the Habsburg reign, as well as the Schönbrunn Palace was by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site recognized. The St. Stephen's Cathedral , next to the Ferris wheel in the Prater and other sights a landmark of Vienna, overlooked as one of the tallest buildings in the city and as the Metropolitan Church downtown.
Vienna is located in northeastern Austria, at the easternmost extension of the Alps in the Vienna Basin. The earliest settlement, at the location of today's inner city, was south of the meandering Danube while the city now spans both sides of the river. Elevation ranges from 151 to 524 m .
Vienna is one of four provinces in Austria, the viticulture operate. 1.6 percent of the area occupied by vineyards. Forest areas cover 17.8 percent is used for agriculture, 14.8 percent of urban and land area.
Vienna lies at the eastern foothills of the Alps , on the western edge of the tertiary Vienna Basin and from the Pleistocene to the present day in the Vienna area landscape forming the Danube. The surface of the town is formed by various geological landscapes:
Gravel and sand of the Pleistocene and the present Danube and Quaternary unconsolidated sediments
Unconsolidated rock, especially tertiary loose sediments of the Vienna Basin
Hard rocks of the Flysch Zone and the Limestone Alps in western Wienerwald area
A system of north-south-oriented faults and fractures runs through the city. Mighty groundwater bodies are found in the Danube gravel.
The development of one of the largest and most important cities of Central Europe owes Vienna among other things to its favorable geographical location. The city lies between the north-eastern foothills of the Alps in the northwest area of the Vienna basin . The historical city was built exclusively south of the Danube , today, the city territory extends on both sides of the river. Vienna came to a crossroads of roads in west-east (Danube) and north-south direction ( Amber Road ). Where the river was easy to cross out or because the current in the Vienna Basin in numerous arms with fanned islands in between.
WIEN MUSEUM KARLSPLATZ
The Wien Museum has an exceptional position in the rich landscape of the Viennese museums: Its collections are a blend of art and history that leads the visitor down Vienna's path through the centuries. What you see are inestimable art treasures. What you feel is a city and its myth
The main building on Karlsplatz is part of a great complex of outside branches, first and foremost the Hermesvilla in Lainzer Tiergarten and the memorial houses of the composers. Special exhibitions regularly present news from Vienna's past and the past of other great cities. Get on the discovery trail of a city. Welcome to Vienna and its museum!
Only to be experienced at the Wien Museum: a fascinating mixture of art and history on three floors, from the Neolithic Age to the mid-twentieth century. Early historical highlights of the collection are the sensational archaeological finds from the Roman legionary camp of Vindobona, original stained-glass windows and outstanding sculptures from St. Stephen's Cathedral, among them the famous ”Fürstenfiguren”, the figures of royalty. Weapons and armour from Vienna’s Bürgerliches Zeughaus (Civilian Arsenal) and the so-called "Turkish Plunder" tell of many warlike encounters in the city's history. The earliest Viennese city maps and many urban views illustrate the structural development from a medieval town to a capital city and royal residence. Among the works of art to admire are outstanding examples of baroque painting in Vienna – including works by Franz Anton Maulbertsch, Johann Michael Rottmayr and Paul Troger.
Another of the Wien Museum's strong points is its collection from the nineteenth century. Selected furniture, clothing and splendid works of applied arts, the reconstructed apartment of the notable Austrian poet Franz Grillparzer with original furnishings, and above all major paintings by Waldmüller, Amerling, Danhauser and Fendi all combine to present a compact and multifaceted impression of Viennese Biedermeier.
Two large-scale models of the city are among the main attractions of the Wien Museum, illustrating a scarcely imaginable caesura in urban development: Vienna before and after dismantlement of the glacis and construction of the monumental Ringstrasse buildings.
The permanent exhibition "Vienna around 1900" shows paintings by Klimt, Schiele, Gerstl and Arnold Schönberg, and also works by the famous Wiener Werkstätte. A sensation for those interested in architecture is the living room with adjoining inglenook from the apartment of the legendary architect Adolf Loos. Selected paintings created in Vienna from the time between the wars to the second half of the twentieth century then bring us to the present day.
The Karlsplatz building
The Wien Museum – from 1887 to 2003 called the "Historical Museum of the City of Vienna" – was once housed in the Vienna town hall. There were already plans for a new building on Karlsplatz before 1914, in fact by Otto Wagner. The museum's first new building opened in 1959, the work of Oswald Haerdtl, a former associate of Josef Hoffmann and architect of the Austrian pavilion at world exhibitions of the 1930s. Since the interior courtyard was roofed over in 2000, the museum has gained a multi-functional event facility and a café. Alongside the permanent collection, special exhibitions are held at regular intervals in the Haerdtl building.
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